Thursday, May 28, 2020

The Tightrope of Power the balance between power, knowledge, and authority in relation to Antigone - Literature Essay Samples

Foucault’s Discipline and Punish reads partly like a historic text and partly like a speculative essay. Its themes revolving around power, knowledge, and authority however, conveys fundamental principles that is innate to human nature. Foucault addresses these issues in a circular fashion where the end of the capacity for one is also the beginning of another. The question that is posed is deceptively simple: what does Foucault mean when he talks about power, knowledge, and authority? To answer this it would be helpful to bring in a text that deals with the same issues (although in a different context) and compare them side by side. The play Antigone by Sophocles is no stranger to these themes. Full of power struggles between authoritative figures and an unyielding pursuit of knowledge (or the truth), Antigone, despite being centuries apart in the time of its publication to Discipline and Punish, speaks to a truth of human nature that is timeless. Both texts understand that pow er, knowledge, and authority are theoretically and practically linked. Foucault argues and the characters of Antigone show that power exists in a fragile relationship, knowledge is acquired but not definite, and authority can sometimes be its own entity. Using Foucault’s teachings and examples as backdrop, I will be looking at the power relationships, the spectrum of knowledge, and command of authority between the characters in Antigone. What does power mean to Foucault? To him, power is not a thing, rather it is a dynamic tension that exists between two or more people. It is also the amount of influence that you are able to exert over someone else in a relationship. He is describing of course a mental rather than physical force where also â€Å"one should decipher in power, a network of relations. (pg. 26)† According to Foucault, everyone has some power, but their power is such to the extent that one can exert the behavior (or determine it) of another. He says that everyone has a certain degree of power but the power is fluid, and â€Å"constantly in tension or activity. (pg.26)† Therefore he would say that Creon is not necessarily more powerful than Antigone because of his place on the hierarchy (as King), but that there exists a constant and equal power dynamic between Creon and Antigone because they both have power. Creon only appears more powerful because he has learned to use his power better than Antigone. Of course I am not completely disregarding the fact that Creon is king and Antigone is not but in Foucault’s terms we are always on one side of the power relationship or the other, so there is no hierarchy of power in that sense. The hierarchical difference in social standing (king to citizen) would be more an issue of authority than power. It can sometimes be unclear who has power over the other but ultimately you cannot escape all power relations because everybody has a relative amount of power. However, there cannot be a power relationship without resistance. We may not be able to escape all relations of power acting on us, but we can try to change or challenge a power imbalance. Because this power is not â€Å"a privilege that one might possess (pg.26)† and is ‘fluid’, this power is also fragile. In the beginning Creon tries to use his power to change Antigone’s mind but later on as we see in the play, Antigone could resist Creon’s power and gain her own to diminish his. Antigone uses her power to speak her own voice which takes away the power of Creon’s. The point that Foucault tries to get across is that power is not a force set in stone. Just because you are a student or child does not mean your professors or parents always have absolute power over you. Foucault admits that sometimes there is not much room in power relations to resist but you can keep trying. In his book he describes petty criminals acting in solidarity and attempting to resist police searches to unsuccessful ends (pg. 63). In the play, Antigone resists Creon’s order by burying the body but Creon has the ultimate authority as king to condemn Antigone to death. Antigone’s struggles to gain power through her words and actions is ultimately unsuccessful but the singular act of doing so diminished Creon’s powers. Even in death we see that Antigone dies by her own hands instead of the way Creon subjected her to death. That in itself is an small act of resistance to Creon’s power although it was only a different means to the same end. For Foucault, truth and knowledge are linked to power in a reciprocal relationship. He says:We should admit rather that power produces knowledge (and not simply by encouraging it because it serves power or by applying it because it is useful); that power and knowledge directly imply one another; that there is no power relation without the correlative constitution of a field of knowledge, nor any knowledge that does not presuppose and constitute at the same time power relations. (pg. 27)Thus briefly, he says that knowledge gives power and power implies knowledge. In order to get the truth, the criminals were tortured to confess. Similarly in Antigone, the characters go through suffering in order to see the truth. Creon witnesses the bloodshed of his entire family before understanding that he was wrong. The point Foucault wants to make is that however the means we go about finding truth, there are always modes of power behind it. Who decides how we find the truth? Who benefits from the truth? Foucault challenges the idea that power is wielded by people or groups by way of ‘episodic’ or ‘sovereign’ acts of domination or coercion, seeing it instead as dispersed and pervasive (pg. 29). Instead it is a kind of ‘metapower’ or ‘regime of truth’ that pervades society, and which is in constant flux and negotiation. The criminals were forced to speak the truth by the power of the police and Creon’s powers led him to find the truth but at a steep price. In the chapter ‘Docile body’ Foucault writes that many scientific models are replaced by new disciplines of old forms (pg. 149). Who decides these new models or ways of thinking? More often than not, those in positions of power can convey knowledge that are by default considered the ‘truth’. This relationship is central to his work. In the book, those in power can organize and chart the methods of the power to punish. In Antigone, Creon’s position of power allows him to set his laws as truth and implement his models of thinking. His laws against Polyneices’ burial might not have been correct yet as king his knowledge is conceived to be the truth and thus it affected the way the citizens approached this ‘truth’. Another interesting extension of the idea of knowledge is that to see all is one way of knowing all. Such like Foucault’s description of the Panopticon, there is an inherent type of power within such a system that depends heavily on the abundance of knowledge of the one in power and the lack of knowledge of those in captivity. In a slightly different fashion, Tiresias, the blind prophet in Antigone, knows many truths. But his power is figurative unlike that of one standing in the center of the panopticon; he is all-seeing but he does not have the power to change any outcomes. Throughout his text, Foucault does not explicitly discuss authority on its own. Rather, he tends to talk about authority always in relation to knowledge or power. The command of authority in Discipline and Punish is exists mainly in the control of males. He writes about women working in workhouses and factories but not in schools or the military, the two largest institutions in charge of creating the â€Å"docile body.† (pg. 135-70) Although Foucault does not deal with gender specifically in this book in relation to power, knowledge or authority, the fact that half the human race is left out does not seem to disturb the drive of the thesis. It seems almost as if the definition of the power relations and the seek for knowledge can exist in both men and women alike. Yet the fact that women is never described to be in positions of authority as teachers, â€Å"inspectors,† military commanders, or as supervisors in a hospital, meant that the place of women in the social cond ition was never in a position to fight for any power, much less exert authority. Of course, this could simply be a reflection of the actual social structure of the time and not a personal bias on behalf of Foucault but it sets an interesting stage for Antigone’s character in the play. In Antigone, it is obvious that Creon has the ability to exert his authority and power as both a male and a king. However, Antigone is the epitome of a woman with authority if not power. Although she is unable to overpower Creon she is able to assert her authority through her actions (burying her brother) and her words (reasoning with Creon). This is an instance where authority can be deprived of physical power to command, but in Foucault’s terms, has the ability to shift the power imbalance other means. Authority in Foucault’s work is more closely tied to power than we can argue in the story of Antigone. In a way, authority is tied to truth because we assume those in authority know the truth and vice versa. Authority and power also has a similar relationship but the difference is that power is fragile and as Foucault says, must depend on a relationship. In a way it can be described that the faults of those in authority is not so much weakness or cruelty but a bad utili zation of the economy of power. The turmoil of power dynamics introduced by Foucault is no better explained and exhibited than by the characters in Sophocles’ play Antigone. Foucault does not tell anyone how to resist but we can infer from the story of antigone that freedom from a power relationship does not mean getting rid of all restrictions, it is about remaking ourselves in the best way that we can under the constraints of power. In Antigone’s case, it is getting the support of the people and resistance of the law. Freedom, Foucault hints, is endless questioning that leads to choice. He reminds us that â€Å"power is not exercised simply as an obligation or a prohibition on those who ‘do not have it’; it invests them, is transmitted by them and through them; it exerts pressure upon them, just as they themselves, in their struggle against it, resist the grip it has on them. (pg. 27) In Antigone, Antigone’s search for her own truth collides with Creon’s struggle to maint ain authority and the delicate balance of power between them tightens the stranglehold over their relationship. Thus, one way for us to understand the themes that Foucault has put forward is that the endless pursuit of knowledge or the truth propels those to seek authority both over others and more importantly, their own powers.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Cyber Terrorism - 1716 Words

In 1999, Chinese hackers targeted United States government sites, after an accidental bombing of a Chinese embassy in Belgrade. During this attack, government sites were hijacked and some sites suffered a denial of service attack. Most recently, it was suspected that Bank of America was the victim of a cyber terrorism attack; although no definitive evidence is available to substantiate that claim. Cyber terror attacks pose a threat against the national security of the United States. In order to fully comprehend the threat that cyber terrorism poses, it is essential to understand the background, the effects, the reality of the threat and the future of cyber terrorism. This assessment examines the reality of the cyber terrorism threat, and†¦show more content†¦Likewise, terrorists will strive to improve their cyber terror attack capabilities by keeping pace with the emerging technologies and overcoming countermeasures. Many computer security experts question the possibility that the Internet could be used to inflict death on a large scale. Some precautions have been made. Systems have been established in the last five years, which aim at preventing a possible cyber terrorism attack. â€Å"Air gapping† has been established on all nuclear weapons, meaning the weapons are not connected to the Internet or any open computer network and cannot be accessed by intruders or terrorists. Still, other areas of concern include subways, gas lines, power grids and communication systems; which are owned primarily by the private sector and are managed by Internet enabled computer systems. Reality of a Cyber Terror Attack Malicious cyber activity is occurring more frequently and with unexpected complexity. In mid-December of 2009, Google experienced a highly sophisticated and targeted attack which originated in China on its search engine infrastructure and e-mail, as well as on at least 20 other companies. Attacks are occurring within the United States, as well. Attacks on government networks are omnipresent. In 2008, NASA and other departments of Defense, Homeland Security and Commerce suffered major intrusions by â€Å"unknown foreign entities† whichShow MoreRelatedCyber Terror And Cyber Terrorism1843 Words   |  8 PagesCyber terrorism has brought and created a big threat to the society especially to the developed worlds. The threat has become so severe that it has captured the attention of the media, security system and the information industry. Cyber terrorists attack their target electronically and needless to say that it endangers life it is also a national security threat. Since most of the infrastructure in the western worlds are computerized and networked, the threat is real and poses a great risk. Just likeRead MoreCyber Security And Terrorism : Terrorism1521 Words   |  7 Pages9:30am-10:45am October 4, 2016 Cyber Security Terrorism In the 21st century, humans continue to advance technology at an incredibly fast rate, which also indicates we become more dependent of the technology. Keep in mind, with more technology being available, new threats emergeï » ¿Ã¯ » ¿Ã¯ » ¿Ã¯ » ¿ constantly in the cyber-world. Everyday society seems to be integrating digitally more and more, meaning the US s infrastructure may be susceptible to attacks. Little is known about America s Cyber Security defenses, if anyRead MoreEssay on Cyber Terrorism1167 Words   |  5 PagesCyber Terrorism Thus far we have scratched the surface of the ever-perplexing problem of terrorism. As it has evolved those in the position of countering it have also gained some valuable experience. Even with this knowledge it is very difficult, bordering on impossible to prevent terrorist acts from occurring. In the recent past there has been an extra element added to this confusing and dangerous equation, the Internet and other computer capabilities. Cyber-terrorism is a realistic possibilityRead MoreIntroduction to Cyber Terrorism2287 Words   |  9 PagesIntroduction to Cyber Terrorism: Cyber Terrorism is an attack executed by Cyber Terrorists via information systems to significantly interfere with the political, social or economic functioning of a groups or organizations of a nation or induces physical violence and creates panic. We define hackers as individuals who wish to access, modify data, files and resources without having the necessary authorization to do so, and/or wish to block services to authorized users. Cyber Terrorists are individualsRead MoreCyber-War and Cyber-Terrorism Defined2092 Words   |  8 PagesCyber-War and Cyber-Terrorism Defined In order to properly answer the question posed we must first define what cyber-war and cyber-terrorism are. The Oxford Dictionaries defines cyber-war as â€Å"The use of computer technology to disrupt the activities of a state or organization, especially the deliberate attacking of communication systems by another state or organization:† Although there is no dictionary definition of cyber-terrorism, The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) has definedRead MoreThe Issue Of Counter Cyber Terrorism1923 Words   |  8 PagesInternational jurisprudence regarding the â€Å"use of force † in matters pertaining to cyber-terrorism and the exercise of permissible of counter-cyber terrorism measures remains predominately unsettled â€Å"as†¦ current international law does not specifically address cyber warfare. † With respect, this legal brief draws upon the arguments put forth by Schmitt for the purpose of arguing that states shall only engage in co unter cyber terrorism measures such as surveillance in accordance with the principles of â€Å"jus adRead MoreModern Terrorism and Cyber Terrorism Essay example1688 Words   |  7 Pages Terrorism is â€Å"the use of violence against people or property to force changes in societies or governments, strikes fear in the hearts of people everywhere.† Terrorism is something that has been going on for many centuries now. It is nothing new to the history of our world. During earlier times, and even now terrorism was started by individual people, groups of people, and political classes. Terrorism does not always happen the exact same way every time. Modern terrorism has started in the 1960’sRead MoreCyber- Terrorism and Information Warfare2164 Words   |  9 PagesThe availability of cheap cyber weapons has made cyber-terrorism a growing threat to the stability of Americas critical infrastructures and society in general. Needless to say that cyber terrorism is a major issue for American policymakers and IT professionals. The growing threat to commercial and government entities has prompted organizations to develop effective strategies and methods to protect their resources and assets from the threat of attackers. Such strategies and methods include butRead MoreTraditional and Cyber Terrorism Essay552 Words   |  3 PagesBasically traditional terrorism and cyber terrorism have same aims, and share same values like disorganization of state government, causing huge economic and political damage and loss, destabilization that will provoke change of government. But there is still difference in some aspects. In contrast with traditional terrorist who uses bombs or other weapons for achieving his or her goals, cyber terrorist uses modern informational technologies for the same purpose. First of all these are computerRead MoreCyber Terrorism And Threats Of Information System1688 Words   |  7 PagesCyber-Terrorism and Threats to Information System National security has been top priority of the United States after World War II. This is due to the fact that the United States before this time was relatively an isolationist country with no influence in the world. As a result national security was not important, this changed post World War II. The United States found themselves among the top, overnight they went from being new and not listened to, to becoming one of the major players in the world

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about George Strait The King of Country - 1339 Words

George Harvey Strait was born and bred in the Texas cowboy tradition. He came into the world on May 18, 1952 in Poteet, Texas (â€Å"Strait Facts†) and was raised in nearby Pearsall, TX on his familys working cattle ranch, a legacy in the family for over 100 years. His childhood was spent working with his father and brother on their farm, and he carried on the ranching tradition by studying agriculture at Texas State University (Dickinson). In 1971, he married his wife, Norma, and shortly after enlisted in the United States Army. While stationed in Hawaii, he began playing country music with his Army-sponsored band, Rambling Country. This began his lifelong love affair with country music, and in 1975 he was honorably discharged from the Army†¦show more content†¦His 2013-2014 tour â€Å"Cowboy Rides Away,† is his last tour but hes not done making music and earning awards yet. In November 2013, he received the ASCAP Founders Award (Toczylowski), and won CMAs En tertainer of the Year Award for the second time (Jamik). He also accepted Billboards highest accolade, the Legend of Live Award and was honored with the Country Radio Broadcasters Career Achievement Award (Billboard). Regardless of George Straits incredible history of recognition and awards, he has always been one of my favorite country music artists. I am a true, long time fan of traditional country and I love his style in particular because of the dash of honky tonk and swing music that comes with it. My husband has roots in Texas and we spend quite a bit of time there on vacation. We enjoy the cowboy lifestyle and have always spent our free time enjoying country music, country two step dancing at the dance hall, being outside horseback riding, attending the rodeo, visiting the county fair and enjoying the laid back country life. One day we plan on moving back to Texas permanently and in the meantime, Georges music makes us feel at home wherever we are. In addition to the lifesty le Georges music keeps alive, he is also very active in charities benefiting Americas veterans. This is very important to me and IShow MoreRelatedLove Leaves Footprints : George Strait, The King Of Country Music1021 Words   |  5 PagesIn the end, the sole kiss he gave her was a first kiss goodbye, which freed her for another man to pursue her. Sounds like Nicholas Sparks’ next novel, huh? Regardless of how it’s shown, love leaves footprints wherever it travels. George Strait, the king of country music, opened the largest concert in North American history by singing a tribute to our fundamental view of love. The song introduces this story of a young girl, who radically changes a young boy’s world by her love. The opening verseRead MoreU.S History I American Pagent Chapter 6 Vocabulary1150 Words   |  5 PagesQuebec expedition, 1759; led to fall of Montreal in 1760 (no more French left in Canada 3. Antoine Cadillac: Frenchman who founded Detroit, â€Å"the City of Straits, â€Å" on 1702 to thwart the English 4. Robert de La Salle: sailed down Mississippi River in 1682 to the Gulf to check Spanish penetration; named great interior basin Louisiana in honor King Louis XIV; murdered when he returned to Gulf in 1687; allowed French to plant posts in Mississippi and Louisiana (New Orleans, 1718) to block Spain onRead MorePre Colonial And Colonial Settlements Essay1679 Words   |  7 PagesPre-colonial and Colonial Settlements Pre-colonial settlement began in the United States when Paleo-Indians, now known as Native Americans, crossed the Bering Strait, an ice bridge that connected the Eastern and Western Hemisphere. This was a crossover from Russia into to United States in which large groups began to settle and form a life. Although this large groups would constantly move around, in which they are known as Nomads, primarily the United States was their new found home. They would endureRead MoreTheu.s. Declaration Of Independence1635 Words   |  7 PagesOn April 13, 1743, in Shadwell, Virginia, Thomas Jefferson was born. He was the author of the U.S. Declaration of Independence; the country s first secretary of state (1789-94); second VP (1797-1801); and, as the third president (1801-09), the statesman in charge of the Louisiana Purchase. As open authority, history specialist, savant, and ranch proprietor, he served his nation for more than five decades. Jefferson was introduced to a standout amongst the most conspicuous groups of Virginia sRead MoreCaptain Cook s Exploration Of Exploration And Discovery2756 Words   |  12 Pagesto traditional languages, knowledge and practises, and indicate how the Indigenous peoples immediately employed resistance to Cook’s crew, and later in the European invasions. The voyages of Captain Cook were very successful in gaining land for King George III and his British subjects. Cook was skilled in cartography and navigation techniques which was instrumental in locating and claiming new lands. Cook was instructed to firstly, observe and time the transit of Venus from Tahiti, and secondly, searchRead MoreHoudini vs. Copperfield1016 Words   |  5 PagesBrandon Basher Mr. George Senior Composition 3 October 2011 Houdini vs. Copperfield Have you ever wondered what kind a person would want to be a magician? There are two famous magicians that pretty much everyone knows. One of them is Harry Houdini who is the most renowned magician known to date (HOUDINI: Harry Houdini Biography Houdini Magic). Houdini had a father that was a Rabbi and six siblings. The other magician is would be David Copperfield, who is the most successful magiciansRead MoreA Comparison Of Vancouver And Montreal1748 Words   |  7 Pagesright behind Africa and Asia. Two of the largest countries in the world are our very own, the United States of America, and Canada. Canada is the second largest country in the world by landmass. Canada is very well known because of the European culture that, over time, has permeated their country. Montreal and Vancouver are two of the most important cities in Canada, and are two of the biggest. Although Montreal and Vancouver are in the same country, each city has many other that distinct characteristicsRead M oreKennedy Is an American Tragic Hero1695 Words   |  7 Pagesthat made him great before presidency. Kennedy was also a WWII war hero. As a PT boat skipper he saved his men in an attack from the Japanese. One of the men who knew Kennedy, saved after his PT-109 was hit by a Japanese destroyer in the Blackett Strait, was Patrick McMahon. After McMahon passed away in 1990 his step-son was asked about the event and what McMahon said about Kennedy: Because he suffered extensive burns in the action, McMahon was unable to swim. The machinist mate first class wasRead MoreThe British East India Company2050 Words   |  9 Pagespoint in 1608. In the next two years, the Company built its first factory in south India in the town of Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. The high profits reported by the Company after landing in India initially prompted King James I to grant subsidiary licenses to other trading companies in England. The Red Dragon fought the Portuguese at the Battle of Swally in 1612, and made several voyages to the East Indies. English traders frequently engaged in hostilitiesRead MoreThe British East India Company2062 Words   |  9 Pagespoint in 1608. In the next two years, the Company built its first factory in south India in the town of Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. The high profits reported by the Company after landing in India initially prompted King James I to grant subsidiary licenses to other trading companies in England. The Red Dragon fought the Portuguese at the Battle of Swally in 1612, and made several voyages to the East Indies. English traders frequently engaged in hostilities

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Elasticity of Demand & Price Discrimination-Samples for Students

Questions: 1.As a producer, why is it important to consider the Price elasticity of demand of your product when setting the price you are going to charge? 2.Explain the difference between comparative advantage an absolute advantages. Answers: Elasticity of demand captures adjustment in demand quantity in relation to change in price. Demand changes differently for different type of goods. Demand plays an important role in pricing decision. Producers consider responses of demand at alternative prices. For goods with elastic demand, a small change in price makes a big difference its demand (Esteves Reggiani, 2014). Opposite is the case for inelastic demand. These two situations are explained in the following diagrams. Figure 1: Market with Elastic demand curve (Source: as created by Author) Figure 1 describes the market situation with a relatively elastic demand curve. The demand curve is DD, which is drawn flatter to explain the elastic nature of demand. SS is the initial supply curve. In order to increase the price from P to P1, producer has to shift the supply curved from SS to S1S1. Accordingly, the quantity supplied decreases from Q to Q1. From figure 1, it is clearly visible that a small increase in price requires a much larger decrease in quantity as PP1 QQ1. Figure 2: Market with inelastic demand curve (Source: as created by Author) In figure 2, steeper demand curve shows the market situation with inelastic demand curve (Tomek Kaiser, 2014). In times of inelastic demand, buyers cannot change their demand much even when price increases. As shown in the figure, producer needs to reduce supply quantity with a small magnitude to increase the price from P to P1. Here, quantity reduction is smaller than price increase. Absolute and comparative advantages are two oldest theory of international trade.. Adam Smith developed the model of absolute advantage. The asic model was developed in a framework of two-country two-commodity. A country enjoys absolute advantage if it can produce more goods and services than another country with given amount of resources. Prior to development of comparative advantage model countries exchange goods based on their absolute advantages (Feenstra, 2015). A country exports the good in which it has absolute advantage and imports the good that involve higher cost. Problem occurs where one country has absolute advantage in all goods. Comparative advantage gives a solution to this situation. Here specialization and exchange is determined based on opportunity cost involved in the production of goods (Viner, 2016). The concept of production possibility frontier is used to understand the opportunity cost. It is the cost of sacrificing one good to produce some other good. The situation is explained with the following example. Table 1: Production of two goods in Country A and B (Source: www.economicsonline.com) In the example given above, country A is able to produce 30m of cars or 6m truck and the same for country B is 35 m or 21m. Here, when look for absolute advantage, country B is in a advantageous position for both the product. Therefore, going by absolute advantage theory no two-way trade relation is suggested. However, country B has a comparative advantage in trucks production because of its lower opportunity cost. In truck production country B is 3.5 times better than country A as compared to only 1.7 times in Cars production. Figure 3: Opportunity cost of country A and Country B in Cars and Trucks (Source: www.economiconline.com) A country specializes and exports good in which it has a comparative advantage and import goods that involve greater sacrifice of other goods References Esteves, R. B., Reggiani, C. (2014). Elasticity of demand and behaviour-based price discrimination.International Journal of Industrial Organization,32, 46-56. Feenstra, R. C. (2015).Advanced international trade: theory and evidence. Princeton university press. Tomek, W. G., Kaiser, H. M. (2014).Agricultural product prices. Cornell University Press. Viner, J. (2016).Studies in the theory of international trade. Routledge.

Friday, April 17, 2020

What is critical read in g Essays - Learning, Philosophy, Argument

What is critical read in g Study guide Critical reading is an important precursor to critical writing. This Study Guide explains why critical reading is important, and gives some ideas about how you might become a more critical reader. Other Study Guides you may find useful are What is critical writing? Using paragraphs and The art of editing. What is critical read in g? The most characteristic features of critical reading are that you will: exam in e the evidence or arguments presented; check out any in fluences on the evidence or arguments; check out the limitations of study design or focus; exam in e the in terpretations made; and decide to what extent you are prepared to accept the authors' arguments, op in ions, or conclusions. Why do we need to take a critical approach to read in g? Regardless of how objective, technical, or scientific the subject matter, the author(s) will have made many decisions during the research and writing process, and each of these decisions is a potential topic for examination and debate, rather than for blind acceptance. You need to be prepared to step into the academic debate and to make your own evaluation of how much you are willing to accept what you read. A practical starting point therefore, is to consider anything you read not as fact, but as the argument of the writer. Taking this starting point you will be ready to engage in critical reading. Critical read in g do es not have to be all negative The aim of critical reading is not to find fault, but to assess the strength of the evidence and the argument. It is just as useful to conclude that a study, or an article, presents very strong evidence and a well-reasoned argument, as it is to identify the studies or articles that are weak. Evidence Depending on the kind of writing it is, and the discipline in which it sits, different kinds of evidence will be presented for you to examine. At the technical and scientific end of the spectrum, relevant evidence may include information on: measurements, timing, equipment, control of extraneous factors, and careful following of standard procedures. Specific guidance will be available within specialties on what to look for. At the other end of the spectrum is writing where there is clearer scope for personal interpretation, for example: analysis of in dividuals' experiences of healthcare; the translation of a text from a foreign language; or the identification and analysis of a range of themes in a novel. In these cases the evidence may include items such as quotes from interviews, extracts of text, and diagrams showing how themes might connect. The nature of the evidence presented at these two extremes is different, but in both cases you need to look for the rationale for the selection and interpretation of the evidence presented, and the rationale for the construction of the argument. Broaden in g the def in ition of evidence This Study Guide takes a broad view of evidence: it maintains that all that you read can be considered as evidence, not purely the actual data collected/presented. This encompasses: the report of the context with in which the data we re collected or created; the choice of the method for data collection or selection; the audit trail for the analysis of the data i.e.: the decisions made and the steps in the analysis process; the rationale for the in terpretations made and the conclusions drawn; the relevance of, and the use made of the theoretical perspective, ideology, or philosophy that is underp in n in g the argument. L in k in g evidence to argument On its own, evidence cannot contribute to academic debate. The interpretation and presentation of that evidence within an argument allows the evidence to make a contribution. The term argument' in this context means the carefully constructed rationale for the enquiry, and for the place of its results within the academic arena. It will explain for example: why the authors considered that what they did was worth doin g; why it was worth doin g in that particular way; why the data collected, or the material selected, we re the most appropriate; how the conclusions drawn l in k to the wider context

Friday, March 13, 2020

Forbes Editorial Calendar 5 Lessons For Yearly Blog Planning

Forbes Editorial Calendar 5 Lessons For Yearly Blog Planning While doing some keyword research one day for the blog, I noticed that the term Forbes editorial calendar’ was holding an unusually high ranking. What gives? Were there really that many people looking for the Forbes editorial calendar? The Forbes #EditorialCalendar: 5 Lessons That Will Make You Better At Blog Planning Curious, I did a search on my own. This is what I found: What’s so great about that, I thought? At face value, it doesn’t look like much. With a publication the size of Forbes, it isn’t much of a surprise that they plan so far in advance. But maybe there is more to it than that. What can we learn from the giants at Forbes about yearly content marketing and blog planning? Should we be doing yearly planning for our own blogs?  Here are five lessons that I learned: Lesson #1: Forbes Isn’t The Only One Who Is Pre-Planning The pre-planning and pre-publishing of the yearly editorial calendar  isn’t a new, or unique, practice. Time, Inc,  and Vogue  all have publicly available editorial calendars right on their website. Why? For most publications, the reasons are actually very business focused, rather than content focused. Most editorial calendars are found within the â€Å"media kit† section of the website, meaning that most publications see them as tools for selling magazine advertising. Simple enough, but what about the content planning implications? Recommended Reading: How Planning Your Blog Content Can Help You Get More Done 15 Tips For Planning Successful Social Media Events How To Run The Perfect Content Planning Meeting Lesson #2:  A Yearly Editorial Calendar Makes Sense There is value in taking a look at your content planning from a yearly perspective. In our own editorial calendar training, we advocate both yearly and monthly planning for most bloggers using an editorial calendar process. The idea is simple:  When you force yourself to start at the highest level and work your way down through the food chain (yearly to monthly planning), you see everything from a grand perspective and consider each detail along the way. Ask any painter–there is big value in starting with a broad brush before honing in on the details. When you see a year’s worth of content all at once, you are free to think about the big picture, without getting too focused on the individual details. This lets you create the overarching themes that your smaller (or monthly) blog posts will fit into the whole plan. Some common topics you might place on a yearly editorial calendar are: Advertising Campaigns Key Industry Events Global/National Holidays Product Launches Commemorative Months The goal shouldn’t be to load the calendar up with things to cover, or individual posts. Rather, you should be looking to find overarching content themes that will fit your content for a certain period of time. Like Forbes, it might be advisable to only select one topic/theme per month. Tip: When using a yearly planning calendar, there can be a temptation to get â€Å"locked-in† on a certain topic/theme. Resist the urge. Just because you have a selected a theme, it doesn’t mean every post has to fit. Like a traditional magazine, perhaps only 30-40% of the articles will follow the theme directly. For you, this could be equivalent to a single post each week. In a magazine, only 30-40% of the articles follow the theme directly.Lesson #3: Even Small Teams Can Benefit From A Yearly Content Plan There’s an old story about a traveler who came across three bricklayers on a scaffold. The traveler asked the first one, "What are you doing?" The first responded, "I'm earning a wage." The traveler then asked the second one, "What are you doing?" The second responded, "I'm building a wall." They are doing the same work, but which of the two is laying the better brick? The traveler then asked the third one, "What are you doing?" The third responded, "I am building a cathedral.† The lesson here is very clear- we can all benefit from understanding the bigger picture, even content teams. Good Questions To Ask Yourself: Where is this blog going? What is the larger goal? How are we achieving this plan? It's common knowledge that a team who communicates the big picture works better together. A yearly calendar should help this big-picture thinking develop within your team. All organizations start with WHY, but only the great ones keep their WHY clear year after year. Those who forget WHY they were founded show up to the race every day to outdo someone else instead of to outdo themselves. The pursuit, for those who lose sight of WHY they are running the race, is for the medal or to beat someone else. ― Simon Sinek, Start with Why: How Great Leaders Inspire Everyone to Take Action You might be surprised at how much big picture thinking comes out as you and your team develop your yearly editorial calendar, especially if you make it a regular part of your content planning meetings. Recommended Reading: 10 Easy Blog Post Ideas To Fill Up Your Editorial Calendar How To Kill Your Editorial Calendar And Watch Your Blog Die How To Quadruple Your Traffic With A Social Media Editorial Calendar Lesson #4: Let The Details Come Together Later The enemy of the blogger is the blank WYSIWYG editor. #blogging #contentmarketingWhen you sit down to write a blog post what usually happens? You start thinking about the individual details of that post. What will this post be about? What should I use as a headline? What will my outline be? These are important questions, but how do they play into our overall content strategy? Jumping into the details too quickly will prevent you from considering the bigger picture. Follow these steps for too long and you’ll end up without a bigger picture at all. Yearly content planning forces us to make those "big picture† decisions early when they are simple and easy to do. It’s about starting at the high level and working our way down. Choosing a monthly theme (or two) is not difficult. When it comes to planning out your posts for the month, the broad theme should make individual topic selection easier than ever before. Now, you at least have a framework for making those decisions. All you have to worry about are the details when writing the post. Put the big decisions first and that will always make the detailed decisions come easier in the end. Lesson #5: Painting With Broad Strokes Helps Your Audience Making your life easier is one thing, but how will a yearly editorial calendar impact your audience? If all goes well, planning for a year should boost your audience and grow your blog. With a yearly schedule, your audience will become more likely to connect with your content. There are a few simple reasons why this is so. 1. Relevant And Timely Content As you connect your content to the larger trends like the Forbes editorial calendar does, you will help your content become more relevant with what is going on at the time. A good example of this is a simple holiday post that I wrote for Thanksgiving a few years ago. Because we planned ahead  and pushed for an emphasis on Thanksgiving, I was able to have a detailed post ready to go when Thanksgiving came around. My post was featured on the homepage of a prominent social media blog exclusively because I was taking advantage of a current trend. Sure, the post only lasted a day or two, but it drove big traffic in the mean time. Yearly planning made the difference on that post. 2. Delve Deeper Into Topics Yearly planning should also allow you to think deeply about the themes and topic categories that matter most to your audience in a new way. This can even be used to reach out to different segments of your audience in a strategic method. For example, on this blog we occasionally rotate between writing posts for â€Å"bloggers† and writing them for â€Å"content marketers† and "editors". While they all have similarities, they really are distinct groups with unique challenges and topics to cover. By focusing on a single topic theme, we're able to reach a specific audience more directly, and build their trust in our content faster than ever before. Recommended Reading: How To Set Deadlines And Processes To Make You (And Your Team) More Efficient This Is What Happens When You Ask 12 Blog Editors About Increasing Productivity How To Actually Plan Your Blog And Save A Lot Of Time Starting Your Yearly Editorial Calendar I know what you’re thinking: This yearly editorial calendar thing won’t be so bad. Here at , we have a set of free paper editorial calendar templates that can help you start the habit of using an editorial calendar to plan your content marketing. This includes a handy template for planning out your yearly calendar. You can download them here. Of course, itself is an excellent way to set up your monthly calendar and comes with a 14-day free trial. Just saying! :) Subject To Change I’ve warned you before about the hazards that come when you plan too far ahead. This hasn’t changed, and it shouldn’t. Even the Forbes editorial calendar makes room for changes when needed. A plan doesn’t mean you can’t change your mind every once and awhile. In fact, it is probably dangerous not to. The key is to use the yearly calendar for what it does best- getting you through the big-picture strategic thinking. As you work the plan month by month, make adjustments and respond to changes in your plan. Nothing can substitute keeping your finger on the pulse of your own strategy. Plan ahead, but never let things go into autopilot.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

FINANCIAL CRISIS, HOME MORTGAGES, CREDIT MARKETS, FINANCIAL Case Study - 1

FINANCIAL CRISIS, HOME MORTGAGES, CREDIT MARKETS, FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS, MORAL HAZARD, ADVERSE SELECTIONS, - Case Study Example Securitization can be considered as a disruptive innovation as it drove the world economy into an all-time debauched predicament whose shattering effects are still felt to-date in America and the world over (Driffill, 2013). Securitization is a financial engineering practice where financial institutions create a pool of assets, including mortgages and loans, and resell the repackaged assets to investors who takes responsibility of the assets thereafter (Bertaut & National Bureau of Economic Research, 2011). The mushrooming of securitization saw the emergence of asset-backed security (ABS) as a common type of mortgage-backed security (MBS) and a structured investment vehicle (SIVs) which become a driving force in the financial crisis by empowering banking institutions to possess superfluous capital which could be given out as loans to prospective homeowners without clear ascertainment of their credit worthiness (Glaeser,  E.  L., & Sinai, 2013; Farmer, 2010). Eric (2010) asserts that MBS was flavored by apportioning between agency MBS, and non-agency MBS. The agency MBS were insured by the government thus resulting to no real credit risk to the investors a factor that made it effective for many organizations to offer mortgage loans to mortgage loan seekers who later painfully defaulted the loans (Manoj, 2010). Apparently, securitization endorsed the disintegration of risks. Investors and mortgage seekers could gravitate towards investments or transactions that best met their reward or risk preferences. This was consequentially backed by securitization which transformed the mortgage market to a lascivious condition. It transferred possession of mortgages from lenders to investment banks and non-bank financial institutions (Batten & Szilagyi, 2011). Noteworthy, the mortgage owners were well acquainted with information pertaining to their borrowers default probability, but securitization bestowed the obligation of offering loans on investment banks